Preheat the oven to 350 degrees F. and grease a 9x13 baking pan.
Place caramels and 1/3 cup evaporated milk in a microwave-safe dish. Heat at high power in 30-second intervals, stirring in between each, until smooth and melted.
In another large bowl, whisk together the flour, sugar, cocoa, baking powder, baking soda, and salt.
Add the melted butter and remaining 1/3 cup plus 2 tablespoons evaporated milk and stir with a wooden spoon until the batter is thick, with no floury streaks remaining.
Spread and press half of the batter in the prepared pan. Bake 8 minutes, remove from the oven, and sprinkle evenly with chocolate chips. Slowly pour the melted caramel evenly over the entire surface of the brownies to be sure that everything is covered in caramel.
Using your hands, scoop up palm-sized portions of the remaining brownie batter and press flat between your hands. Gently lay over the caramel until covered. Return to oven and bake 15 minutes.